Created on:2021-07-30 10:50

Hydraulic failure of ship lift for hydropower equipment_ Installation and debugging of hydraulic system

水电设备升船机液压故障_液压系统的安装调试
Hydraulic failure of ship lift for hydropower equipment_ Installation and debugging of hydraulic system

    升船机液压系统具有压力级别高、系统流量大、控制精度高、控制动作多等特点,所有动作状态实现实时监控,保障船箱升降正常工作。控制各回路均设置液压锁和保压、补压回路,使各控制缸在控制位置和控制状态下安全、可靠地工作。升船机液压故障与一般液压设备故障的机理无异.但安全可靠性更为人们重视。
The hydraulic system of ship lift has the characteristics of high pressure level, large system flow, high control precision and many control actions. All action states can be monitored in real time to ensure the normal operation of ship box lifting. Each control circuit is equipped with hydraulic lock, pressure maintaining and pressure compensating circuit, so that each control cylinder can work safely and reliably in the control position and control state. The mechanism of ship lift hydraulic failure is the same as that of general hydraulic equipment failure, but people pay more attention to safety and reliability.

    液压系统中均衡调平控制回路控制要求最高,,油路多采用,响应快、精度商、控制调整灵活可靠。系统控制回路中大量采用压力继电器和压力传感器,监测和控制系统压力。在分析液压系统本身故障以前,应检查分析电气控制与检测反馈系统。
In the hydraulic system, the balance leveling control circuit has the highest control requirements, and the oil circuit is widely used, with fast response, high precision, flexible and reliable control adjustment. The pressure relay and pressure sensor are widely used in the system control circuit to monitor and control the system pressure. Before analyzing the fault of hydraulic system itself, the electrical control and detection feedback system should be checked and analyzed.

升船机液压系统比较复杂,图V、图W、图X所示为某升船机机电与液压主要故障的故障树。一旦发生故障,可依故障树,按照化整为零、步步深入的思路找出故障点。
The hydraulic system of a ship lift is complicated. The fault tree of the main faults of electromechanical and hydraulic system of a ship lift is shown in Figure V, Figure w and figure X. Once a fault occurs, the fault point can be found according to the fault tree and step by step.

VW.jpg

X.jpg

液压系统的安装调试
Installation and debugging of hydraulic system

(1)概况
(1) Overview

    该系统利用电站溢流坝泄洪闸门调整下游水位,采用承船厢自浮方法成功下水并进入船厢池。先后完成了主提升系统、上闸首、下闸首、承船厢等机械设备的安装和初步调试,并对主提升系统进行了空运转以及同步传动系统的闭环试验。实现了承船厢在空气中的升降试运行以及上闸首、承船厢、主提升各电控子站的单项调试;进行了承船厢载水称重、主机原型及承船厢原型测试等前期准备项目并投入现场调试,实施了承船厢出入水、下闸首对接、船舶进出承船厢及承船厢适应下游水位变率、上闸首对接等试验项目。各电控子站又与中央控制室通信联网,采用计算机监控为主、现场手动控制为辅的方式进行了升船机双向运转试运行调试。
The system uses the sluice gate of the spillway dam of the power station to adjust the downstream water level, and uses the self floating method of the ship box to successfully launch and enter the ship box pool. The installation and preliminary commissioning of the main lifting system, upper lock head, lower lock head, ship chamber and other mechanical equipment have been completed, and the closed-loop test of the main lifting system's idling and synchronous transmission system has been carried out. The trial operation of the ship chamber in the air and the single commissioning of the electronic control sub stations of the upper lock head, the ship chamber and the main hoist are realized; The preliminary preparation projects, such as the water carrying capacity of the ship chamber, the prototype test of the main engine and the prototype test of the ship chamber, were carried out and put into field commissioning. The test projects, such as the water inlet and outlet of the ship chamber, the docking of the lower lock head, the ship entering and leaving the ship chamber, the adaptability of the ship chamber to the downstream water level variation, and the docking of the upper lock head, were implemented. Each electronic control sub station communicates with the central control room, and adopts computer monitoring as the main method, supplemented by on-site manual control to carry out two-way operation and commissioning of the ship lift.

(2)液压系统及润滑系统的安装
(2) Installation of hydraulic system and lubrication system

    同单元的设备安装顺序为:低速减速器粗调、精调一卷简装置一高速驱动装置一同步轴系统、锥齿轮箱一液压、润滑系统一平衡滑轮组一空载闭环试验一钢丝绳安装一钢丝绳与船厢和平衡重的连接。
The equipment installation sequence of the same unit is as follows: rough and fine adjustment of low speed reducer - winding device - high speed driving device - synchronous shaft system, bevel gear box - hydraulic and lubrication system - balance pulley block - no-load closed-loop test - Installation of steel wire rope - connection of steel wire rope with ship chamber and balance weight.

    与液压站和安全制动器连接的管路均先进行酸洗,以20%硫酸酸洗后,用10%的苏打水中和,用温水洗净和磷化处理,均要确认其内部无杂物存在。安全制动器的安装调整以闸瓦与制动盘的双边间隙为基准就位。液压系统安装完毕后,要进行耐压试验,试验压力为25MPa,之后用油循环进行管路的清洗。液压系统管潞安装应尽可能对称布置,以使各制动瓦上闸时间差减小。
The pipelines connected with the hydraulic station and safety brake shall be pickled first, then pickled with 20% sulfuric acid, washed with 10% soda water and Phosphated with warm water, and the internal impurities shall be confirmed. The installation and adjustment of safety brake is based on the bilateral clearance between brake shoe and brake disc. After the installation of the hydraulic system, the pressure test should be carried out, the test pressure is 25MPa, and then the oil circulation is used to clean the pipeline. The pipes and pipes of hydraulic system should be arranged symmetrically as far as possible, so as to reduce the time difference of each brake pad.

(3)钢丝绳与平衡重和船厢连接
(3) The steel wire rope is connected with the balance weight and the cabin

    调平液压缸、防转板、调整螺杆在船厢上进行组装。依次反转卷筒,使船厢侧力矩绳绳头与调整螺孔连接;正转卷筒,将上述设备吊至船厢甲板。各组单元在船厢侧绳头连接完毕后,将主提升机重新连成一闭环。转动卷筒,连接调平液压缸吊耳与船厢吊耳,对船厢液压调平系统进行充油、调试,使其满足船厢提升要求。之后,提起船厢,平衡重侧绳头下降,并与力矩平衡重连接,注意调整调节螺杆的长度,使每组力矩平衡重的4根钢丝绳受力基本一致。至此,完成了船厢与平衡重的连接,主提升机可以将不载水船厢提起。
The leveling hydraulic cylinder, anti rotation plate and adjusting screw are assembled on the ship cabin. Reverse the reel in turn to connect the moment rope head on the side of the cabin with the adjusting screw hole; Turn the drum forward to lift the above equipment to the deck of the ship. After the connection of each group of units at the side rope head of the ship compartment is completed, the main hoist is reconnected into a closed loop. Rotate the drum, connect the leveling hydraulic cylinder lug and the ship compartment lug, and conduct oil filling and debugging for the ship compartment hydraulic leveling system to meet the ship compartment lifting requirements. After that, lift the cabin, the rope head of the balance weight side falls down, and connects with the moment balance weight. Pay attention to adjust the length of the screw to make the force of the four wire ropes of each moment balance weight basically the same. So far, the connection between the ship chamber and the balance weight is completed, and the main hoist can lift the non water carrying ship chamber.

(4)2×2×1500kN液压启闭机同步调试
(4)2 × two × Synchronous commissioning of 1500KN hydraulic hoist

    工作闸门的升降运行是通过分别布置在闸首两侧的2×2×1500kN步进式液压启闭机实施的,工作位置可随航道水位变化而自动调节。启闭机行程12m,驱动启闭机起升、下降的4套起升液压缸(每侧两套)与8套锁锭液压缸(4套升降锁锭和4套支承锁锭)相配合分节驱动,每节行程400mm。运行状态要求起升液压缸同步误差小于3mm,且多节行程不得积累。
The lifting operation of the service gate is carried out through 2 gates arranged on both sides of the gate head × two × The working position of 1500KN stepping hydraulic hoist can be adjusted automatically with the change of waterway water level. The hoist stroke is 12m. Four sets of lifting hydraulic cylinders (two sets on each side) driving the hoist to lift and lower are matched with eight sets of locking ingot hydraulic cylinders (four sets of lifting locking ingot and four sets of supporting locking ingot) to drive the hoist in sections. The stroke of each section is 400mm. It is required that the synchronous error of the lifting hydraulic cylinder should be less than 3mm and the multi stroke should not be accumulated.

    液控系统采用了同步阀和电液比例调速阀后一机双缸同步来实现液压启闭机的多缸同步,取得了较好的效果,升船机采用2×2×1500kN液压启闭机多缸同步是一项新的尝试。现场调试实践中,出现了启闭机随负载变化同步精度重复性不稳定现象。经过不断的摸索实践,改进设计,提高单缸的速度调节能力,液控与电测相结合,多缸同步精度重复稳定性得以提高。经多次运转,检测其同步精度已达到2mm以内,满足了运行需要。
The hydraulic control system adopts synchronous valve and electro-hydraulic proportional speed control valve to realize the multi cylinder synchronization of the hydraulic hoist, which has achieved good results × two × Multi cylinder synchronization of 1500KN hydraulic hoist is a new attempt. In the field debugging practice, the repeatability of synchronous accuracy of hoist with load change is unstable. After continuous exploration and practice, the design is improved, the speed regulation ability of single cylinder is improved, and the synchronization accuracy and repetition stability of multi cylinder are improved by combining hydraulic control with electric measurement. After several times of operation, the synchronous accuracy has reached within 2mm, which meets the operation needs.

(5)承船厢与上闸首对接过程中卧倒门运行浪涌的抑制
(5) Surge suppression of the reclining door in the docking process between the ship chamber and the upper lock head

    承船厢与上闸首对接,间隙体完成充泄水后,工作大门上卧倒门及承船厢上游卧倒门将同时开启或关闭。由于两卧倒门在对接状态下的间距为160mm,故在两卧倒门同时开启时,间隙水体产生巨大吸附力,使卧倒门产生振动,一造成船厢内浪涌达20cm。在两卧倒门同时关闭时,卧倒门两侧水体同时向间隙水挤压,致使在关闭过程产生卧倒门抖动,到位困难。为解决上述问题,调试过程进行了多种方案比较和实践。在不改动液压系统的前提下采用两卧倒门分时段开闭,对克服卧倒门同时开闭运行困难、抑制浪涌,取得了良好效果,即当关闭时,承船厢卧倒门先关闭,在运行中形成的波浪涌向上游,工作大门卧倒门延时20s启动运行,由于两侧卧倒门先后关闭,间隙水可在工作大门卧倒门关到位时,随其侧隙排流使卧倒门在运行中阻力减少,平稳运行。在开启时,工作大门卧倒门滞后承船厢卧倒门30s后再运行,浪涌及水阻最小。实践证明两侧卧倒门在关闭时,,间隙水基本处于与上游水位保持一致状态,开启时厢中浪涌最大5cm。运行中卧倒门振动及爬行现象消失。
After the clearance body is filled and discharged, the upper and upper down doors of the working gate and the upper down doors of the ship chamber will be opened or closed at the same time. Because the distance between the two landing doors is 160mm in the docking state, when the two landing doors are opened at the same time, the water body in the gap produces a huge adsorption force, which makes the landing door vibrate, causing a surge of 20cm in the cabin. When the two reclining doors are closed at the same time, the water on both sides of the reclining door is squeezed to the gap water at the same time, resulting in the shaking of the reclining door in the process of closing, which makes it difficult to get in place. In order to solve the above problems, many schemes are compared and practiced in the debugging process. On the premise of not changing the hydraulic system, the two reclining doors are opened and closed in different periods, which can overcome the difficulty of opening and closing the reclining doors at the same time and restrain the surge. That is to say, when the reclining doors are closed, the ship compartment reclining doors are closed first, and the waves formed in the operation rush to the upstream. The reclining doors of the main working door start operation after a delay of 20 s, The clearance water can be drained along with the side clearance when the working door is closed in place, so that the resistance of the working door is reduced and the operation is stable. When the working gate is opened, the operation of the reclining door is delayed for 30s, and the surge and water resistance are the minimum. Practice has proved that when the two side down doors are closed, the gap water is basically in the same state with the upstream water level, and the maximum surge is 5cm when the door is opened. The vibration and creeping phenomenon of the reclining door disappeared during operation.

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